Cycle counting

May 13, 2013
Cycle counting: Configuration, Process flow and Implementation

This is brief overview of cycle counting process in inventory management (IM). 

What is cycle counting?

Cycle counting is a method of physical inventory whereby inventory is counted at regular intervals within a fiscal year. Physical inventory may be required by financial accounting rules or tax regulations. Cycle counting process is less disruptive to operations. This process can be integrated in daily operations for example count 200 materials at beginning of shift (20 people counts 10 materials each).

Cycle Counting allows you to count fast-moving items more frequently than slow-moving items. Cycle counting process is fairly easy to implement. This process increase accuracy of inventory.

Configuration

Cycle count indicator

Following img path: Materials Management - Inventory management and Physical inventory - Physical inventory - Cycle counting (Tcode: OMCO)

Configure following parameters
1. Define the allowed cycle counting indicators in the plant.
2. Make the required settings for each indicator.



No. of phys. inventories per fiscal year for cycle counting: Specifies how often during the fiscal year a physical inventory is to be carried out for a material subject to cycle counting. This parameter will convert count interval in work days.
Interval: The count interval is determined automatically on the basis of the number of physical inventories specified for the fiscal year.

Float time: Indicates the number of workdays by which the planned count date may vary from the current date. 
For the plant 3000, the float time is five days. A physical inventory has been planned for a material belonging to category C for June, 1. On expiration of the float time (after June, 6), the physical inventory has not yet been carried out. Irrespective of the category, the material is parked for the next cycle counting run.

Percentage: Specifies the percentage allocation of the materials to the individual cycle counting categories. The percentage value is used for automatic assignment of the cycle counting indicator during ABC analysis.

Settings for physical inventory


This is more generic physical inventory settings, but it may impact cycle counting process  
Change documents are activated for physical inventory document
The book inventory balance is adjusted in the physical inventory
Serial number management is set up. In above example last five digits of serial numbers will be printed on physical inventory document

Reason for movement

Following img path: Materials Management - Inventory management and Physical inventory - Movement type - Reason for movement (tcode: OMBS)

As per your business requirement configure reason code for movement type 701, 702

Master data

1. Cycle counter indicator set for the material’s plant data 1 tab. 
 

This indicator is set if the material is to be cycle counted. This indicator can also determine how the count is taken and how often. This indicator groups the materials together into various cycle counting categories. Usually, these categories correspond to the ABC analysis of the materials. ABC analysis can be done via report MIBC (Program RMCBIN00).

2. Cycle counting indicator is fixed. 
This indicator specifies that the cycle counting indicator cannot be changed for cycle counting by an ABC analysis.

Execution / Process flow chart

Here is flow chart for cycle counting process 



Assuming cycle count indicator is set on materials, first step in cycle count process is create cycle counting documents.

MICN - Create Physical Inventory Documents for Cycle Counting

This report to create batch input session’s physical inventory documents for the cycle counting physical inventory procedure.

Selection 

Restrict selection based on Material number, storage location, Material group etc.
In addition to unrestricted-use stock, you can include stock in quality inspection and blocked stock in the selection.
By specifying a threshold value, you can define that only stocks above or up to a particular level are included.
 
Physical inventory number

You can setup batch job with different variants for generating cycle count sheets in MICN. You can use TVARV table to customize physical inventory number and/or physical inventory reference. For example: you want to have different reference numbers for each storage locations for ease of reporting. You can use above reference number in setting up next job for auto printing physical inventory document via MI21.

Posting block 
Indicates that no goods movements involving the materials listed in the physical inventory document can be posted for the duration of a physical inventory count.
The indicator is set for the affected stocks in each case (storage location stock, batch stock, or special stock) for all associated stock types and is not cancelled until the count results are posted.
The blocking indicator can be set in one of two ways:
Directly upon entry of the physical inventory document (if the count is to take place immediately)
Shortly before the count (if the count is to place later)

Freeze book inventory
Specifies that the book inventory balances of those items in a physical inventory document that have not yet been counted are frozen.
This indicator has the effect that the current book inventory balance is recorded in the physical inventory document. The system compares the counted stock with the frozen book inventory balance to determine any inventory differences.
If the count results are not entered immediately after the stock has been counted, it is useful to set this indicator so that any goods movements which may take place in the meantime will not change the book inventory balance relevant to the physical inventory.
For example: Business process is to count inventory before shift beings, and then after few hours inventory administrator enters counts. In this case do not set ‘Posting block’ as production will need to perform goods issue. In this case set ‘Freeze book inventory’, so inventory count will be measured against inventory at time of physical inventory documents were created.

Output

Output will have all materials for which physical inventory documents can be created.
It then lists the stock management units for which a physical inventory is already active, but has not been completed within the predefined float time and therefore must be completed urgently. These stock management units are not included when the batch input session is created because active physical inventory documents already exist.
In addition, the list contains all materials for which cycle counting is required within the planned interval (specified interval for the planned count date). If a physical inventory had already been due prior to the planned interval, the planned count date would be highlighted.
Rest of steps are self-explanatory. Inventory reference number can be used for rest of transaction to complete cycle counting process.

MI21 – Print Physical inventory document

Here you can specify 
Grouping criteria e.g. Group by bin number
Sorting criteria for serial numbers

MI24 – Physical inventory list

This transaction can be used as working transaction for inventory administrators. User can use inventory reference number to group cycle counting document. 
In this transaction user can enter count, monitor progress, run analysis and post counts.  

Integration

When the inventory differences are posted, the total stock is automatically adjusted to the counted quantity on the document. When the document is posted, the difference will correspond to either a goods receipt of goods issue. This affects following area
Material planning for production or sale orders 
Stock value on balance sheet

Tips

1. If there is any historical record for last cycle date, during cutover update field DLINL in MARD table to continue cycle counting process
2. Refer to SAP note 518418 - FAQ: Cycle Counting
3. Physical inventory can be counted for special stocks as well e.g. MIW1 – Consignment at Customer, MIO1 – Material provided to vendor

Source: help.sap.com

 

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